Planet Neptune discovered on Sept. 23, 1846

3D render the planet Neptune on a black background, high resolution. Credit: © Shutterstock

3D render the planet Neptune on a black background, high resolution. Credit: © Shutterstock

Neptune was the first planet discovered based on observations of another planet. In the mid-1840’s, a young astronomer and mathematician named John C. Adams began the hunt for the farthest planet from the sun by observing Uranus. Subtle changes in the planet’s orbit hinted that another body was tugging on Uranus with its gravitation pull. Adams concluded that the unknown planet should be about 1 billion miles farther from the sun than Uranus. He completed his work in September 1845 and sent his computed orbit to Sir George B. Airy, the astronomer royal of England. However, Adams did not provide Airy with sufficient information to find Neptune.

Meanwhile, the French mathematician Urbain J. J. Le Verrier also became interested in the unseen planet. By mid-1846, Le Verrier had also calculated Neptune’s orbit. However, Le Verrier also used his calculations to predict Neptune’s position in the sky. He sent his predictions to the Urania Observatory in Berlin, Germany. Johann G. Galle, the director of the observatory, had just charted the stars in the area where the planet was believed to be. On Sept. 23, 1846, Galle and his assistant, Heinrich L. d’Arrest, spotted Neptune. The planet was in almost exactly the position predicted by Le Verrier.

Traditionally, Adams and Le Verrier have been jointly credited with the discovery. However, after Adams’s papers were rediscovered in 1998, some historians began to grant sole credit to Le Verrier. Adams’s papers revealed that he had not fully explained where in the sky Neptune could be found and that his calculations lacked the accuracy of Le Verrier’s. By contrast, Le Verrier’s calculations of position led Galle and d’Arrest to find Neptune after only a 30-minute search.

This Week in History: Tanks first used in battle during World War I

(pc060845) British tank in World War I. Credit: © The Illustrated London News Picture Library

(pc060845) British tank in World War I. Credit: © The Illustrated London News Picture Library

Machine guns, heavy artillery, barbed wire, and poison gas all existed before World War I (1914-1918). Airplanes, too, already existed, as did observation balloons, submarines, hand grenades, and flame throwers. One weapon, however, developed as a direct result of the fighting in the war: the armored combat vehicle known as the tank.

Battles in World War I tended to be fought by men charging through barbed wire into machine gun and artillery fire. This form of combat produced carnage on an unprecedented scale. Battlefronts settled into static trench systems. Repeated assaults on heavily defended trenches caused still more carnage. In early 1915, British Lord of the Admiralty (the Royal Navy) Winston Churchill was looking for a new idea, and he found one.

British Army Lieutenant-Colonel E. D. Swinton, assigned as a war correspondent, had seen the bloody battlefields of France. He also knew of the American-made Holt caterpillar tractor. The tractor ran on a continuous band of treads driven by inner wheels. The machine could navigate almost any terrain—including trenches. Swinton thought that an armed, armored vehicle running on caterpillar treads might have a chance on the modern battlefield. Winston Churchill agreed. The new machine was dubbed a land battleship, or, simply, a landship.

Under the utmost secrecy, design and construction of experimental landships began. In 1916, models were tested and quickly prepared for combat. They featured a large, oblong armored compartment for the engine, equipment, crew, ammunition, and either heavy cannon or machine guns. A long tread ran around the entire length of each side of the compartment. The machines were large, incredibly slow and heavy, and hard to maneuver. But they could crawl on muddy terrain, cross trenches, blast holes in enemy defenses, and withstand a great deal of punishment. Before the vehicles were sent to France, however, the name landship was deemed too descriptive—a concern if the term leaked to the enemy. The machines were thought to resemble large water cisterns, or water tanks. The new name stuck.

On Sept. 15, 1916, a few dozen tanks rumbled into combat for the first time during the Battle of Flers-Courcelette in northern France. Most of these first tanks broke down mechanically, became bogged down in massive shell holes, or were disabled by enemy fire. Those that reached the German lines, however, had the desired effect. They penetrated the German defenses, knocked out enemy machine guns, and profoundly frightened enemy soldiers.

After the experience of Flers-Courcelette, improved versions of the tank were developed, and military leaders prepared to use them in much greater numbers. In 1917, the newly formed Tank Corps saw action in several battles, but it was at Cambrai in November where tanks enjoyed their first great success. More than 370 tanks broke a wide—albeit, temporary—gap in the enemy lines. Seeing the tank’s usefulness, the Germans built a few of their own, and, in April 1918, opposing tanks clashed for the first time during the Second Battle of Villers-Bretonneux. That same month, Lieutenant-Colonel Swinton traveled to California to personally thank Benjamin Holt, inventor of the caterpillar tread tractor.

Tanks went on to greater fame and usefulness after World War I, and they continue to be integral parts of modern militaries around the world. Holt’s tractor company survives today as Caterpillar, one of the world’s largest machinery manufacturers.

This Week In History: Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii was born in 1838

Liliuokalani, Queen of Hawaii, full-length portrait. Credit: Library of Congress

Liliuokalani, Queen of Hawaii, full-length portrait. Credit: Library of Congress

Aloha oe, aloha oe
E ke onaona noho i ka lipo
One fond embrace,
A ho i a e au
Until we meet again 

Farewell to you, farewell to you
The charming one who dwells in the shaded bowers
One fond embrace,
‘Ere I depart
Until we meet again

The lyrics to the song “Aloha Oe,” and their lovely accompanying melody, are familiar to many who visit America’s 50th state, the Pacific island paradise of Hawaii. But few know that the song was composed by Hawaii’s last reigning monarch, Queen Liliuokalani, a woman who played a pivotal role in the tumultuous times that accompanied Hawaii’s transition from monarchy to American possession.

Liliuokalani (pronounced lee LEE oo oh kah LAH nee) was born in a grass house in Honolulu on Sept. 2, 1838. She came from a long line of Hawaiian rulers, going back many years to the unification of the islands in the late 1700’s. The Kingdom of Hawaii, under King Kamehameha III, adopted a constitution in 1840. The young girl, known as Lili’u or Lydia, attended a boarding school for royal children, where she learned to read and write in both Hawaiian and English from Christian missionaries. The practices and values of this religion would remain with her for the rest of her life. American missionaries had first arrived in Hawaii in 1820. Europeans were also familiar with the islands. Captain James Cook of the British Navy had landed there in 1778.

Unfortunately, the newcomers to the islands brought unfamiliar diseases to Hawaii. A measles epidemic struck when Lili’u was 10, and a smallpox epidemic occurred a few years later, killing thousands of Hawaiians. Still, Hawaiians—including Lili’u—intermarried with haoles (foreigners). Lili’u married John Owen Dominis, an American, on Sept. 16, 1862.

Hawaii became an enormously popular place for the growth and export of sugarcane during the mid-1800’s, especially after the outbreak of the American Civil War (1861-1865). The secession of cane-growing Southern states boosted the demand for sugar from Hawaii, and sugar exports helped Honolulu to become a boomtown. The sugar planters and other non-native residents of Hawaii became a strong economic and political force.

Several Hawaiian kings died following short reigns in the 1860’s and early 1870’s, and no named heir was prepared to ascend to the throne in 1874. After a bitter battle between pro-British and pro-American supporters of two rival candidates, Lili’u’s brother, David Kalakaua, was elected to become king in February 1874. However, many sugar planters resented Kalakaua’s expenditures on a new palace, a navy, and frequent travel. They also criticized his ties to people they considered unstable foreign adventurers. In 1887, they forced Kalakaua to accept a constitution that severely restricted his powers. After King Kalakaua’s younger brother and heir apparent died in 1877, he named Lili’u as his successor. He gave her the royal name Liliuokalani, meaning Lili’u of the heavens.

King Kalakaua died in 1891, and Liliuokalani became queen. Queen Liliuokalani tried to create a new constitution that would increase her power. But the American settlers who controlled most of Hawaii’s wealth disapproved of her efforts and staged a revolt. A republic was established in 1894, and Liliuokalani was forced to abdicate in 1895. The leaders of the republic accused her of participating in an attempted rebellion that would have restored her to the throne. She was imprisoned for eight months in Iolani Palace in Honolulu, the palace her brother had built.

United States President Grover Cleveland tried to restore Liliuokalani to her throne. However, he failed to do so. He later wrote that he was “ashamed of the whole affair” that resulted in Hawaii’s annexation to the United States. Hawaii became a U.S. territory in 1898.

Liliuokalani died of a stroke on Nov. 11, 1917, at her home in Honolulu. She had no children. However, the former queen left as a legacy her many musical compositions, her writings, and a trust that today still cares for orphaned children in Hawaii.

This Week in History: Spanish explorers arrive off the east coast of Florida in 1565

Portrait of Pedro Menendez de Aviles. Credit: Library of Congress

Portrait of Pedro Menendez de Aviles. Credit: Library of Congress

On Aug. 28, 1565, the feast day of Saint Augustine, the Spanish explorer Don Pedro Menéndez de Avilés—with about 800 soldiers, sailors, and settlers—sighted land on the east coast of what is now Florida. A little over a week later, he sent some of his soldiers ashore. Historians think the men were greeted by Timucuan Indians and began fortifying a small Indian village at the site. On September 8, Menéndez came ashore with the rest of his expedition and formally founded the settlement as St. Augustine. The settlers soon built a mission, Nombre de Dios, meaning Name of God in Spanish. This was the first Christian mission in North America. Some historians believe the Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León had previously visited the St. Augustine area in 1513.

Spain ruled St. Augustine for more than 200 years. During the late 1500’s, St. Augustine served as Spain’s military headquarters in North America. The English naval commander Sir Francis Drake looted and burned the settlement in 1586. Spain ruled St. Augustine until 1763, when the British gained control. Spain again ruled the settlement from 1783 until 1821, when Florida became a territory of the United States. St. Augustine is the oldest permanent settlement established in the United States by Europeans.

Color, Curiosity, and JAZZ

J is for Jazz book cover

J is for Jazz book cover

Pantone, the self-proclaimed “global color authority,” announced Radiant Orchid as the Color of the Year for 2014. As much as it bemuses me that a company has the right to grant such an accolade, I have to admit it’s a gorgeous color. But the interpretation of color is very much in the eye of the beholder and is exceedingly subjective. A color that evokes a certain reaction in one person may evoke a very different response in another. Our varying feeling for color most likely emanates from an emotional space within us – it could stem from our past, our personality, or our environment – and is triggered by the context and arrangement in which it’s used. My favorite color is fuchsia. You may hate fuchsia.

Pantone’s Color of the Year 2014: Radiant Orchid

Pantone’s Color of the Year 2014: Radiant Orchid

Leatrice Eiseman, executive director of the Pantone Color Institute, claims Radiant Orchid “intrigues the eye and sparks the imagination,” and that may be true. But I would argue that any color can spark the imagination. It can spark our curiosity, too; it can draw us into new experiences of the world and shape our sense of who we are. Color can express the deepest but also the most basic symbols in human culture. Consider what color can tell us about history and culture throughout the 20th century: the psychedelic ‘60s, the earthy ‘70s, the vibrant ‘80s.

 

Where would we be without curiosity? Without curiosity, human culture would remain static. In all of its books, Bright Connections Media uses color to foster curiosity in child and adult alike, and that curiosity leads to discovery. Bright Connections Media aims to help readers discover the colorful world in which they live, and there is no world more colorful than that revealed in our upcoming title J is for Jazz.

J is for Jazz uses bold and evocative imagery that begs for curiosity. It gives us a whimsical look into an age infused with energy and vibrancy. It reveals the infinite kaleidoscope of color that is the world of jazz.

And in case you’re wondering, no, that’s not Pantone’s Radiant Orchid on the cover of J is for Jazz. But I think it helps spark the imagination, too.  

- Tom Evans
Art Director
World Book, Inc.

This week in history: Marshall Field I, American merchant, was born in 1834

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Portrait of Marshall Field. Credit: Library of Congress

When someone mentions “Marshall Field,” what springs to mind—at least for most Chicagoans—is an image of the city’s world-famous Beax-Arts department store with its landmark twin clocks jutting out a block apart above State Street.

But few people know the story of the man who founded the company that bore his name. Marshall Field I was born on a farm in Conway Township, Massachusetts, probably on Sept. 18, 1834. He came to Chicago in 1856 and obtained a job with a dry goods firm. In 1865, Field bought an interest in merchant Potter Palmer’s rival business. By 1881, Field gained control of the firm, and it became known as Marshall Field and Company.

Field introduced many new merchandising strategies. For instance, he marked prices on the merchandise and let customers exchange goods if they were dissatisfied. The company developed new advertising methods and window displays to attract customers. It was the first store to sell bargain goods in its basement.

Field’s slogan was “Give the Lady What She Wants,” and he made an effort to attract women to his store. He hired young women as salesclerks, opened a restaurant in the store, and offered lounges, restrooms, a library, a nursery, and telephones to customers. Customers could also check their coats, write letters on complimentary Marshall Field stationery, and hold meetings at the store.

Field was also quoted as saying, “I was determined not to remain poor.” By the 1880’s, he was the richest man in Chicago. Although not known for his generosity, Field made important philanthropic contributions later in his life. These included a gift of land as a site for a new University of Chicago. He also contributed about $9 million to establish the Field Museum in Chicago, one of the world’s largest natural history museums. Field died on Jan. 16, 1906. Successive generations of Fields continued the retail merchandising enterprise and expanded into publishing. (In fact, the Fields owned World Book, Inc., the publisher of The World Book Encyclopedia, from 1945 to 1978.)

A year after Field’s death, architect Daniel Burnham completed construction on the southwest corner of the State Street store. Also in 1907, the store’s famous stained glass dome, designed by Louis C. Tiffany, was built. Although the store appears to be one building, it is actually made up of five different structures, which have been seamlessly integrated into a single entity. The original State Street store, which opened in 1868, was destroyed in the Great Chicago Fire of 1871; a second building at that location was also destroyed by fire in 1877. The building that stands today was built in parts between 1893 and 1914, designed by Burnham and Company. The 12-story building is the second-largest store in the world. It was declared a National Historic Landmark and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. It was designated a Chicago Landmark in 2005.

Marshall Field and Company grew to become a major chain store before being acquired by Federated Department Stores of Cincinnati in 2005. In 2006, the nameplate of Macy’s went up on more than 400 stores across the United States, including the former Marshall Field’s stores.

As the new Macy’s sign went up on the former Marshall Field’s flagship store on State Street, loyal Field’s customers protested, holding signs that read “Field’s is Chicago” and buttons bearing the message “I Want My Marshall Field’s.” To this day, a local group works through its website, FieldsFansChicago.org, to “bring back Marshall Field’s in quality, service, and name” by holding rallies and distributing leaflets and flyers.